Principal languages: Modern Standard Arabic (official), English
Ethnicity/race: Egyptian 98%, Berber, Nubian, Bedouin, and Beja 1%, Greek, Armenian, other European (primarily Italian and French) 1%
Religions: Islam, Christianity, Judaism
National Holiday: Independence Day, 22 February
Literacy rate: 73.8%
Economic summary: GDP/PPP $6,600 (2013 est.). Real growth rate: 3.7%. Inflation: 11.40%. Unemployment: 13.4%. Arable land: 2.88%. Agriculture: cocoa, coffee, rubber, flowering shrubs, fruit trees, nut trees, and vines. Labor force: 27 million Industries: pharmaceuticals, food processing, petroleum, construction, cement, metals, and light consumer goods. The clothing and textiles sector is the largest industrial employer. Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, phosphates, and iron ore. Crude oil is found primarily in the Gulf of Suez and in the Western Desert. Exports: $24.81 billion Imports: $59.22 billion Major trading partners: Italy, Ivory coast, Jamaica, Japan.
Member of Commonwealth of Nations
Communications: Telephones: 10.808 million (2006); mobile cellular: 30.047 million (2007). Radio broadcast stations: AM 42, FM 14, Television broadcast stations: 98. Internet hosts: 5,363. Internet users: 12,568,900
Transportation: Railways: total: 7,063 km. Waterways: 3,500 km Ports and harbors: 16. Airports: 71 (paved) 19 (unpaved)
International disputes: Sudan claims but Egypt de facto administers security and economic development of Halaib region north of the 22nd parallel boundary; Egypt no longer shows its administration of the Bir Tawil trapezoid in Sudan on its maps; Gazan breaches in the security wall with Egypt in January 2008 highlight difficulties in monitoring the Sinai border; Saudi Arabia claims Egyptian-administered islands of Tiran and Sanafir
Tourism is one of the most important parts of Egypt's economy. Approximately 14.7 million tourists visited Egypt in 2010, providing revenues of nearly $12.5 billion. At its peak the sector employed about 12% of Egypt's workforce as well as contributing more than 11% of GDP and 14.4% of foreign currency revenues
The celebrated tourist attractions of Egypt are the millennia-old monuments for which the Nile Valley is world famous. Principal among them are the Pyramids and Great sphinx at Giza, the Abu Simbel temples south of Aswan and the Karnak temple complex and Valley of the kings near Luxor. Cairo also boasts the Cairo museum and the Mosque of Muhammad Ali Pasha and the coastal areas of Sinai Peninsula are very popular with visitors as well.
5,000 years ago, the pharaonic nation was founded in Egypt, and they were a sophisticated and civilized society. This nation left a very large amount of monuments and temples. Most of the reminders of this well known nation is preserved in Egypt. These monuments draw many tourists, who like to watch and appreciate these reminders, to Egypt.